Periodic breathing or Chyne-stoke breathing occurs in diseases.
Causes of Chyne-stoke breathing
Diseases of Brain
Some people have increased sensitivity to CO2. This is due to the disruption of neural pathways that inhibit respiration. There is an over-response to CO2 leading to hyperventilation, this is followed by apnea where CO2 builds up leading to over response of hyperventilation thus cycle continues.
Chyne stroke breathing can occur in patients with heart failure. This is due to slow circulation. Due to slow circulation, there is prolonged circulation time between lung and brain. CO2 fall in capillaries of lung take longer time to show up in the brain, by then the brain sends a signal for hyperventilation, thus leading to more fall in CO2 levels, which leads to apnea and an increase in the level of CO2. Thus the cycle continues. Respiratory control system oscillates because of the negative feedback loop from lungs to the brain is abnormally long.